Advertisement

Use of a mental rotation reaction-time paradigm to measure the effects of upper cervical adjustments on cortical processing: A pilot study

      Abstract

      Objectives: To investigate the potential usefulness of a mental rotation paradigm in providing an objective measure of spinal manipulative therapy. To determine if cortical processing, as indicated by response time to a mental rotation reaction-time task, is altered by an upper cervical toggle recoil adjustment. Design: Prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Setting: Chiropractic college clinical training facility. Participants: Thirty-six chiropractic student volunteers with clinical evidence of upper cervical joint dysfunction. Intervention: Participants in the experimental group received a high-velocity, low-amplitude upper cervical adjustment. A non-intervention group was used to control for improvement in the mental rotation task as a result of practice effects. Outcome measures: Reaction time was measured for randomly varying angular orientations of an object appearing either as normal or mirror-reversed on a computer screen. Results: The average decrease in mental rotation reaction time for the experimental group was 98 ms, a 14.9% improvement, whereas the average decrease in mental rotation reaction time for the control group was 58 ms, an 8.0 improvement. The difference scores after the intervention time were significantly greater for the experimental group compared with the control group, as indicated by a one-tailed, 2-sample, equal variance Student t test, (P < 05). Conclusion: The results of this study have demonstrated a significant improvement in a complex reaction-time task after an upper cervical adjustment. These results provide evidence that upper cervical adjustment may affect cortical processing. (J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2000;23:246–51)

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Zhu Y
        • Haldeman S
        • Starr A
        • Seffinger MA
        • Su SH.
        Paraspinal muscle evoked cerebral potentials in patients with unilateral low back pain.
        Spine. 1993; 18: 1096-1102
        • Hodges PW
        • Richardson CA.
        Inefficient muscular stabilization of the lumbar spine associated with low back pain: a motor control evaluation of transversus abdominus.
        Spine. 1996; 21: 2640-2650
        • Luoto A
        • Taimela S
        • Hurri H
        • Aa HoH
        • Pyykko I
        • Alaranta H.
        Pyschomotor speed and postural control in chronic low back pain patients: a controlled follow-up study.
        Spine. 1996; 21: 2621-2627
        • Murphy B
        • Dawson N
        • Slack J.
        Sacroiliac joint manipulation decreases the H-reflex.
        Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1995; 35: 87-94
        • Carrick FR.
        Changes in brain function after manipulation of the cervical spine.
        J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1997; 20: 529-545
        • Shephard R
        • Metzler D.
        Mental rotation of three-dimensional objects.
        Science. 1971; 171: 701-703
        • Cooper LA
        • Shepard RN
        Chronometric studies of the rotation of mental images.
        in: Mental images and their transformations. : MIT Press, London1973
        • Nordvik H
        • Amponsah B.
        Gender differences in spatial abilities and spatial activity among university students in an egalitarian educational system.
        Sex Roles. 1998; 38: 1009-1023
        • Courbois Y.
        Evidence for visuospatial imagery deficits in persons with mental retardation.
        Am J Ment Retard. 1996; 101: 130-148
        • Siterenios GM
        • Siterenios GG
        • Finegan J.
        Mental rotation at 7 years; relations with prenatal testosterone levels and spatial play exercises.
        Brain Cogn. 1995; 29: 85-100
        • Hu JW
        • Yu XM
        • Vernon H
        • Sessle BJ.
        Excitatory effects on neck and jaw muscle activity of inflammatory irritant applied to cervical paraspinal tissues.
        Pain. 1993; 55: 243-250
        • Zhang C
        • Wang Y
        • Lu W.
        Study on cervical visual disturbance and its manipulative treatment.
        J Tradit Chin Med. 1984; 4: 205-210
        • Licht PB
        • Christensen HW
        • Hojgaard P
        • Marving J.
        Vertebral artery flow and spinal manipulation: a randomized, controlled and observer blinded study.
        J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1998; 21: 141-144